of publication author
But, unfortunately, we have to state there was
written and published none of a rather competent work, scientific
investigation fundamentally generalizing the history and theory
of our music, after the most invaluable book by U. Hajibeyov.
In other words, U. Hajibeyov's searches were not followed on the
proper level. Considering the fact that Azerbaijani folk music
consists of two interrelated branches (creativity of ashigs and
khanende), we, possibly, see this connection, primarily in unity
of mugham's construction.
One can suppose that U. Hajibeyov, pointing in his book that the
most part of Azerbaijani national songs, dance melodies and "other
musical forms" (cursive is mine - A.B.) are composed in mughams
Shur and Segah, chiefly implied ashig creativity.
We hear this in such musical forms as gerayli, tajnis, dodagdeymez,
performed today by talented ashigs Asad Rzayev, Mirza Bayramov,
Islam Yusifov, which, in their turn, continued creative traditions
of the word and saz masters: Ashig Gurbani, Abbas Tufarganli,
Ashig Alesker, Valeh, Huseyn Bozalganli, Ali Miskinli.
The terms on mugham's genres and forms, along with the terms on
the ashig creativity, occupy the central place in the Dictionary.
Mughamat is the most beautiful creative product of the national
musical thinking. Mughamat with its inherent deep meaning, clear
and calm style, is based on the logic principles of development,
definite musical system, possessing the richness of subject-matter
and various forms of manifestation.
Many peoples took participation in composition and development
of mugham. Mutually profitable economical and cultural ties between
countries of the Mideast spread of music in the towns, domineering
on the big caravan roads, and other factors enabling organic interpenetration
of musical genres in cultural life of the neighbouring peoples,
close to each others by territories.
Regarding this point, the Soviet musicologist Kh.Kushnaryov's
summary is of great interest. He writes: "Mughamat is mainly an
art of the Muslim world peoples". The consideration about partial
participation of non-Muslims, particularly, Armenians, in development
of mughamat, especially, if the question is of comparatively later
forms of mughamat creation, is also for a reason.
According to this fact, Kh. Kushnaryov uniquely indicates that
in the East, beginning from the Ġ century, such scientists as
al-Farabi and Abu Ali ibn-Sina, showed serious interest in theoretical
problems of music. There is not a single area of common interest
between the researches method, used by them and their associates,
and the method of ancient Armenian musical theorists.
However, stating these actually true theses, Professor Kh. Kushnaryov,
some while makes unilateral, ill-founded conclusions, because
he loses sight of some important aspects, as well as presumes
simple factual lapses, related to the mughamat art.
After following up his valuable scientific observations on history
and specificity of the mugham art, in certain cases at bottom,
he puts forward, in consequence of superficial and token approach,
bare philosophies, as a matter of fact. E.g., analyzing ashig
Hayat's song "Matin matani animan" ("How nice is a ring on my
beloved's finger"), he shows that:
1) The song is written in the scale of the mugham Mukhalif;
2) And the mugham Mukhalif in its class position refers to Transcaucasia
(read after South Caucasus) aristocratic class (!?)
3) Here for grounding of his concept the author cites to scientific
thesis, put forward on page 9 of the known book by U.Hajibeyov.
With that, specified by Kh.Kushnaryov theses are remote from the
1). At considerate listening of the song that Kh.Kushnaryov attempts
to analyze, especially, with regard to his stay on the note si-flat
of the 9-th bar, we can define this song sounding not in the mugham
Mukhalif. Most probably, it is written in the mode Humayun, with
no magam Khumayun, applied in Azerbaijan, but its antitype - Iranian
2). Many original samples of Azerbaijani folk music - songs, tesnifs,
and rengs are executed in the mode Mukhalif. Mukhalif occupies
one of the central sections of the dastgakx Chargakx, comprising
so many Azerbaijani dastgahs, and applies in folk music of Transcaucasia.
Its demonstration is more so indicative in the period of privileged
life of gentle folks (ĠIĠ c.), etc. However it doesn't prove belonging
of this mugham solely to aristocrats.
By our opinion, such an artificial classification of mughams by
external features, assertions of mugham's "class position" cannot
be considered as scientific attitude. This principle, finally,
can be crowned by false sociological conclusions.
3) Is not there in the book by U. Hajibeyov a single word about
wide spread occurrence of mugham Mukhalif among the masses of
Then Professor Kh.Kushnaryov calls the concept of mughamat, as
accepted, "wide improvisational vocal-instrumental or instrumental
composition". As a matter of fact, along with the right definition
of the mentioned forms, he missed the existence of pure vocal
form of mugham.
In the meantime, going into the question of performing mughamat
as an instrumental-vocal composition, one should remember of poetic
text, rhymes (primarily, poetic form Gezel). It's hard to envisage,
how mugham can sound in vocal execution of non-Islamic public
in the metric of aruz rhyme, and what impression that can make.
So, supposedly, when Kh.Kushnaryov told about participation of
non-Muslim peoples, he, most likely, implied at that Armenian
masters - mugham performers, mainly limiting by only instrumental
form of statement. These peoples are known to cultivate in their
ambience many talented instrumentalists-sazende (tar, kamancha,
flute, naghara players, etc.), but they could not educated true
mugham singers - khanende.
Professor Kh.Kushnaryov quite justly denoted that so many problems,
concerning the art of mughamat along with its historical evolution,
compositional principles, national particularities, were not still
worked out on the proper level. Therefore, contradictions of ideas
and opinions, regarding the point of view on the origin of mughamat
and its class position, are in evidence.
"All these arguments arose, principally, because of historical
aspect snubbing: mughamat is once for all comprehended as art,
belonging to any certain class".
In general, problems, related to performing of mughamat, through
many years were item of heated disputes between masters of khanende
and sazende. Particularly, in matter of mughams-dasgahs, videlicet:
a) of which sectors dastgahs consist; b) melodic features of the
each separate sector; c) consequences of sectors; d) the rules
of transition of one sector to another; e) performance peculiarities
of dastgah; f) melismas and trills; g) metric signature (measure,
Debates, regarding mughamat issues, as was mentioned above, often
appeared unprovable, unfounded, both carrying abstract meaning,
and in the most cases, empty judgment of no fundamental importance.
Therefore, in specific cases, some of performers - khanende and
sazende, laying emphasis of these, at bottom, all over inappropriate
and senseless arguments, as if bearing principal character, abused
the current situation. In this respect, the careless behavior
of some small-minded sazende, who attempted to prevent the initiation
of opera art in Azerbaijan, was demonstrational.
The group of tar players, participating as part of the orchestra
of the first in Azerbaijan opera staging "Leyli and Majnun", observed
with own eyes, which difficult circumstances and challenges they
had to manage for preparation and completion of this stage direction.
They were living eyewitnesses of this activity. Yet, for all that,
on the day of premiere (all the tickets were known to be sold
in advance), in the afternoon, during the last repetition, they
withdrew their participation in the evening performance, pretending
some unpleasantness happened between them. U.Hajibeyov wrote:
I remember the high-pitched argument started between tar players,
concerning the performance of some melody, assumed an aspect of
such a serious conflict that none of the tar players, but Gurban
Primov, came to the opera premiere. I had to preclude this disadvantage
urgently within two hours before drawing the curtain: I added
musical passages, intended for performing by tar players, to the
violin players' part".
To find out the reasons of ceaseless contradictions on the subject
of structuring mughamat, one need, first of all, refer to the
chapter "Historical information" from the scientific work by U.Hajibeyov
"Fundamentals of Azerbaijani national music". On making interesting
comparisons, U.Hajibeyov vividly and obviously explains with artificial
expressiveness, inherent for his talent of journalist-writer,
why and how mughamat suffers changes during centuries.
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